An overview of currently existing LNG facilities in the world, technical aspects of a single station, and gas consumption forecasting. Part 1: Review of existing infrastructure.
Tomasz Cieślik, Piotr Narloch, Andrzej Żero
The first part of the publication focused on a review of existing LNG installations in the world, the possibilities of island gasification using LNG, and the construction of LNG gasification stations was discussed. The forecasting process will be presented in part 2 of the article. Over the past few years, the gasification process has been intensively developing in terms of increasing the number of gas consumers and expanding the infrastructure of the gas network. In Poland, there are areas that do not have a gas network, and constructing a linear investment for this purpose is not profitable or the existing gas network nearby does not have sufficient capacity to serve the given area. In such a situation, the possibility arises to utilize LNG regasification stations to supply gas fuel to isolated areas.
The new investing effectiveness evaluation multi-criteria method in modern energy supply systems.
The important problem in the processes of modelling and programming the development of sustainable energy sector is the multi-criteria manner of assessing the effectiveness of investments. The goal of this paper is to show how to take into account the impact of investments in multidimensional modeling decision-making processes. This goal can be achieved through the development, presentation, and use of a new multi-criteria method of evaluating the effectiveness of investing towards to modern renewable energy sector. This innovative method was developed and tested in research for the energy sector carried out by the author. Method consist of a relatively simple way of taking into account the qualitative features of the criteria in the process of evaluating investments in the energy sector. Using the real data of the energy invested in the city of X in Poland, the effectiveness of the project was examined applying the multi-criteria method proposed by the author, and for the same purpose, the well-known ELECTRE method was used. The comparison of the results of the investment effectiveness studies by both methods confirmed the high convergence of the effects obtained in both methods. The achieved results of research very high effectiveness of the analyzed renewable energy technologies.
City’s retention potential. Part 1: Methods.
Paulina Rybka, Jakub Jurasz, Marcin Wdowikowski
The development of urban areas is an inherent element of civilization development. In Poland, the progressive urbanization processes together with the strong trend of changing the functional structure of rural areas over the last thirty years have resulted in an increase in the area of development and its sealing. The share of green areas and wastelands was significantly reduced, which resulted in the deterioration of retention conditions in the water balance of both urban agglomerations and smaller towns. At the same time, the effects of climate change contribute to the increasing occurrence of extreme weather events, causing increasing threats related to phenomena such as urban heat island, flash floods and drought. Urban space is particularly sensitive to dynamic changes in meteorological conditions, mainly due to the growing number of people living there. Anthropogenic environmental changes and climatic threats significantly contribute to the problem of rainwater and meltwater drainage in urban catchments, as well as to a reduction in the quality of life. This work aims to present methods for assessing the retention potential, which, on the one hand, allows us to illustrate the scale of the problem we face when adapting urban space to the conditions of a changing environment, and on the other hand, indicates possible directions of urban areas development to make them suitable for living in the expected functional and utilitarian stucture.
Algorithm of carbon footprint calculation for municipal wastewater treatment plant – part one
Paulina Szulc-Kłosińska, Zbysław Dymaczewski
In the forthcoming years, urban wastewater management utilities will be required by the European Union to perform CF calculations in accordance with the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) and European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS) indicators. Yet, no standardized approach that expressly addresses the rules for WWTPs in respect to GHG emissions, giving the water bodies a clear instruction to calculate their CF is given. This paper provides an in-depth examination of the present approaches for calculating GHG emissions. An algorithm for calculating the carbon footprint of a wastewater treatment facility is developed and described in detail by the authors. Furthermore, the research evaluates the extent to which facility data is complete and suggests remedies to any detected information gaps. A data enhancement strategy is also offered. The primary goal of this research is to bridge a knowledge gap in the understanding of the carbon footprint associated with WWTPs and their organisational framework. The analysis also included a thorough investigation into the significance and sources of GHG Protocol Scope 1 (part one arcticle), 2, and 3 emissions (part two article) within the larger framework of carbon footprint, particularly in relation to the legislative goals of CSRD reporting with its upcoming obligations imposed on waterworks organizations.