Four decades of development and use of Coriolis flow meters as measuring devices in gas industry. Possibilities of applying Coriolis mass flow meters for LNG measurements. Possibilities of using Coriolis mass flowmeters for LNG measurements Kedzierski.
The article presents the history of the development of Coriolis mass flow meters as measurement devices for custody transfer measurements of gases and cryogenic fluids with particular emphasis on natural gases and LNG (Liquid Natural Gas). The principle of operation of the Coriolis flowmeter is discussed and the history of its commercialization is presented. The general assumptions of the SMOK projects carried out at PGNiG (currently Orlen) in 2016-2020 are described, aimed at the widespread use of Coriolis flow meters for custody transfer procedures in the small-scale LNG area. The results of industrial research on periodic calibration systems and ensuring measuring traceability of Coriolis flowmeters using water stations and for applications in the measurement of cryogenic fluids are presented.
Battery energy storage utilization in optimization of heat production in district heating sector
The innovative approach to the issues of integration of an electricity storage, heat storage and an electrode heating boiler in the heating system in this paper is presented. In recent years, a growing share of renewable energy sources in heating has been observed, which may result in the dynamics of electricity price variability being greater and more frequent than in daily and annual periods. This may apply in particular to the price of heat from electrode boilers. The proposed solution to optimize heat prices at an acceptable level for end users, consisting in connecting an electrode heating boiler with heat and electricity storage facilities is presented.
Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from exhaust gases of special thermal equipment
Alexander Shkarovskiy, Agnieszka Maliszewska
Air pollution in homes may be largely determined by the condition of atmospheric air. In gasified apartments, some harmful components of exhaust gases from gas stoves and from outside interact, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx). From this point of view, the vicinity of industrial facilities with low chimneys may be particularly dangerous. The article presents the results of research on reducing nitrogen oxide emissions from industrial furnaces in which the combustion conditions could not be changed. The research was carried out for the technology of ceramic sinter production in a radiotechnical products plant. The results of research on the effectiveness of several developed denitrification technologies are presented, including the selective catalytic reduction method with ammonia, the adsorption method with various reagents, and the catalytic method without the use of reagents. The developed methods allow for reducing NOx emissions by 30÷60%. The advantage of the developed technologies is the possibility of combining them with the existing gas purification system from production dust. Another important detail was the presence of substances with catalytic properties in the technological process.For further research and implementation, the technology of selective catalytic reducti.
Periodic variations in stormwater quality in roadside reservoirs and possible uses of stored water
In many places around the world, there are growing water deficits and problems in satisfying certain needs. For this reason, gray water and rainwater are increasingly used. Reservoirs collecting runoff from impervious surfaces are considered as potential sources of water for some recipients. This paper evaluates the pollution level and variations in the quality of rainwater collected and pre-treated in sealed ponds located next to new roads in the metropolitan area of Lublin (south-eastern Poland). Potential threats and possibilities of water reuse were also assessed. The studies took into account changes in traffic intensity and weather conditions. Qualitative research was conducted seasonally. The analyzes included, among others: selected physical, biogenic and salinity indicators. High variations in the concentration of total suspended solids, NO2-, NH4 +, PO43-, TP, and Cl– were observed (74-216 %). On some measurement dates disturbing conductivity, pH, suspended solids, TP, Cl– and COD values were found. Under the test conditions, variations in stormwater quality was greater at the first stage of using the system of reservoirs, and the mean level of pollution stabilized several years after its construction. Changes in traffic intensity did not significantly affect on the degree of contamination of the stored water. The high variability of water pollution makes it difficult to precisely identify periods in which the use of ponds poses the lowest risk. Rainwater management should be based on thorough analyses of water quality (constant monitoring) and the evaluation of possible threats to the environment.
Application of the FTIR technique and chemometric methods to evaluate the biological process of municipal wastewater treatment with activated sludge
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Bartosz Walendzik
The activated sludge process is the most popular method used in many sewage treatment plants, which usually allows to achieve the required ecological effect. However, it is also characterized by a certain instability of the obtained effects, depending on conditions and parameters which are partly beyond the operator’s influence. Therefore, rapid analytical techniques are being sought for the control and assessment of activated sludge, which, in the event of irregularities occurring in biological tanks, will allow operational decisions to be made to correct the process as well as its optimization. This article presents the possibilities of using FTIR-DRIFT analysis of activated sludge suspension combined with chemometric analysis of selected sludge and sewage parameters to assess the course of the purification process at various stages of operation of the biological reactor. The obtained results indicate that the use of the FTIR technique for rapid assessment of a biological process is possible, and in combination with PLS modeling and after appropriate calibration with physical and chemical parameters, it can constitute a control element in the operation of sewage treatment plants.
A new approach to the problems of recycling spent catalytic converters
Joanna Willner, Agnieszka Fornalczyk, Bernadeta Gajda, Agnieszka Sobianowska-Turek
In the last decade the main application of precious metals has been the production of auto catalytic converters. The life time of catalytic converters is limited and after that time remains a rich source of platinum group metals. The article presents currently used pyro-and hydrometallurgical precious metals recovery methods. However, particular attention is dedicated to the new trends in biohydrometallurgy, focused on the possibility of using cyanogenic microorganisms potential in biological leaching of precious metals. A review of the achievements and results of laboratory tests for the extraction of precious metals from waste materials by bacteria leaching has been presented. The areas of research that require further explanation and solutions have been indicated. The article also gives suggestions for further laboratory work towards the use of cyanogenic microorganisms for recovery of platinum group metals from solid waste. The work also presents innovative solutions for the management of residues (specifically cordierite carriers) following the processing of used automotive catalytic converters through pyro-, hydro-, or bio-based methods.