Natural Gas Hydrogen Composition Sensor.
This article describes the gas composition sensor that allows testing of any ternary mixtures. The originally planned application of the sensor, its principle of operation, construction and applicability in testing the proportion of hydrogen in the composition of natural gas are described. The advantages of the proposed solution as well as its limitations are given.
A unique solution of gas purification technology in Polska Spółka Gazownictwa.
Ewa Pacześniak-Graczyk, Jacek Kawula
The impurities in the gas distribution network may significantly affect the security of the distribution system and ensuring continuity of gas fuel supplies to consumers. The article describes the phenomenon of “black powder”, which is one of the most serious problems facing the oil and gas industry. The article presents a solution of the technology of a two-stage sequence of gas purification from solid impurities, liquid particles using a combination of a centrifugal separator of impurities, so-called multi-cyclones with a filter-separator and application this solution in the gas network.
The Finite Elements Method application to assesmen the impact of turbulence generated by wind turbines on their location in close proximity of overhead high voltage power transmission lines.
The paper presents selected aspects of network construction related to the location of wind turbines due to their aerodynamic impact on power lines of high and highest voltage. The technical context has been described on the applicable formal and legal conditions. Based on the source data concerning the aerodynamic impact of a wind farm consisting of eight turbines on a 400 kV transmission power line, an analysis of the possibility of wind farm locating in the immediate vicinity of the line was carried out. There are serious problems with locating higher capacity wind farms in the context of their connection to the transmission grid. One of the most important issues in the design/construction of wind farms is the rationalization of the typology of distribution of individual generating units due to the turbulence they generate . An example of a report on the assessment of the aerodynamic impact of wind turbines on a high-voltage power transmission line in the case of planning their location in the vicinity of the line is presented. Ways of solving the wind farm location problems have been proposed, which allow the wind farm to be located in the vicinity of an overhead high-voltage power transmission line.
Accelerating Transition to the Circular Economy.
The article discusses the key principles and conditions required for an accelerated transition to the circular economy, a new economic model that represents sustainable progress towards efficient green growth and provides the framework to develop new business models aimed at increasing the value, use and life of materials, products and assets. Embracing the circularity principles can also accelerate the recovery from the current economic downturn. The transition to the circular economy requires a radical change in the way we produce and consume. Products are designed for durability, upgradeability, reparability and reusability. Companies develop new business models generating revenue streams from services rather than products while making a more efficient use of resources and materials and consumers use products efficiently and discard them in such a way that they can be turned into secondary materials that can enter a new production-consumption cycle. The introduction of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is considered to be an essential step in the road to circularity. Policy makers should also try to benefit from the experiences of more advanced economies and form strong partnerships in order to choose the most optimal path to the transition to the circular economy.
Potential market value of electrolyte condensate recovered from LIBs mechanical treatment.
Agnieszka Sobianowska-Turek, Przemysław Łoś, Agnieszka Fornalczyk, Michał Zygmunt
Due to the present and future regulatory and economic effectiveness requirements of spent LIB’s recycling process, the recoveryof each component of the batteries should be carefully considered. However, most of the presented to date research and development results have been focused on the selective recovery of pure e.g. nickel, cobalt and lithium salts or hydroxides obtained from the waste of Li-ion batteries and accumulators. In the present paper, preliminary effectiveness assessment of recycling process of spent LIB’s organic electrolyte components is presented. The analysis is based on new experimental data of the actual chemical quantitative and qualitative composition of the electrolyte condensate. On the basis of gas chromatography method coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it can be concluded that the average recovery of electrolyte condensate from a ton of used and/or waste lithium-ion cells from electric cars is about 12.5%, which is quite important part of LIB’s mass to be recycled. Estimated market value of the electrolyte condensate obtained during mechanical processing of (waste) electric cars cells is approximately 3 480.5 USD/ton. The value of the recovered cells electrolyte components have been estimated with assumption that the organic compounds may be separated in the recycling processes.
The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the detection of methane emissions.
The article presents the experience of the Polish company Prometheus SA, the manufacturer of the Prometheus H2 Hybrid Drone Platform, in the field of using modern unmanned technologies for the detection and measurement of unauthorized methane emissions occurring in the gas infrastructure. The company bases its experience on many years of cooperation with: • reputable manufacturers of methane detectors for unmanned applications, such as the Swiss company PERGAM-SUISSE AG., • national managers of gas infrastructure, such as PKN Orlen, Gaz System or PSG, • economic organizations, such as the Gas Chamber of Commerce. The article will discuss the possibilities of using the Prometheus H2 platform in methane detection, the latest solutions in the field of unmanned technologies used on its board, the sensors used, the possibilities of using the platform for gas detection, integration of the platform with ERP systems: SAP, IFS, IBM MAXIMO and the possibility of its integration with dedicated customer systems. The conclusion will confirm the possibility of using the Prometheus H2 platform to detect unauthorized gas emissions on the gas infrastructure, including determining the extent and intensity of emissions.
Application of multi-criteria method of hierarchical analysis of decision-making problems to select the direction of reclamation.
Wojciech Kos, Mirosław Szyłak-Szydłowski
Reclamation is the process of restoring the function and quality of degraded natural areas or damaged land. In the case of areas degraded by mining activities, they are subject to reclamation and development, the main purpose of which is to impart or restore use or natural values. The most common form of reclamation is the filling of pits with water or, in the case of dumps and adjacent areas, a forest or recreational direction. Before choosing the optimal direction for reclamation, the factors characterising the degraded area should be analysed in detail and economic, social, geological-engineering, formal-legal and environmental factors, among others, should be taken into account. This paper demonstrates that methods of multi-criteria analysis, which include the hierarchical problem analysis (AHP) method, can be a tool that can be successfully applied to the optimal selection of the direction of reclamation of land degraded by mining activities.