Integration of the gas network with an intelligent energy system as an element of efficiency, reliability and sustainability of the multi-energy system
The objective of this article was to describe the role of the gas system in the ongoing energy transition. Determination of the possibilities to use the gaseous fuel for energy balancing as well as the ongoing decarbonization of the energy system and the implementation of the EU climate goals may indicate the need for integration of the gas sector with the power grid. The scope of this article indicates the technical solutions that
Comparison and determination of common quality parameters for biomethane injected into the gas network and biomethane intended for bioCNG transport
In Poland, biomethane is not yet used as fuel for vehicles. There are also no installations purifying biogas to the quality of natural gas and injecting it into the gas network, unlike many European countries such as e.g. Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Sweden. The article highlights the fact that the use of bioCNG is possible in the same vehicles that run on CNG, and that storage and distribution of bioCNG and CNG can take place via the same refueling system. This article analyzes the quality parameters of biomethane injected into the gas network and the quality parameters of CNG and bioCNG. The result of this analysis is the identification of differences in the quality of biomethane used as a final product for various applications, and the determination of homogeneous quality parameters for biomethane injected into the gas network, which can also be used as fuel for bioCNG vehicles.
Life Cycle Assessment of unconventional hydrocarbons deposits of shale and tight gas production in Poland .
Monika Wójcik, Paweł Gładysz, Wojciech Kostowski, Krzysztof Łodziński
Shale and tight gas production create a potential threat to the environment. In Poland, no comprehensive guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) have been prepared so far. The paper presents a proposal for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) which can be used to assess the impact of production of unconventional hydrocarbons processes in Polish circumstances. It can be also a complement to environmental risk assessment. We used the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and estimated the environmental impact of shale and tight gas exploration and operation for several elements like: global warming, water consumption, human carcinogenic toxicity, terrestrial acidification, and others. Słowa kluczowe: life cycle assessment; shale gas; tight gas; environment pollution; carbon footprint, global warming potential.
Gas patio heaters as practical and highly effective heat sources for open spaces .
Piotr Cembala, Iwona Stachurek
Gas patio heaters have been widely used for several years, especially in café gardens and restaurants, mainly in tourist towns and agglomerations such as Kraków, Wrocław, Gdańsk, mountain and seaside towns. The interest in patio heaters is due to the fact that they are a good source of heat, especially in transitional climatic periods (spring, early autumn). There are various types of design solutions for patio heaters available on the market, e.g. ceramic heaters, umbrella heaters with top heating, patio heaters with tubular heating.
Influence of the quality of PP-R socket fittings on the flow resistance value – laboratory tests
Bartłomiej Rogowski, Marcin K. Widomski, Anna Musz-Pomorska
Minor pressure losses in indoor installations, especially based on modern polymer materials with numerous pipes connections, may present a significant share in the total pressure loss. Incorrect determination of minor pressure losses at the designing stage, their inappropriate installation or placing them in the direct proximity may result in the faulty operation of the whole system. This paper presents the attempt of determination the influence of quality of PP-R 20×3,4 mm welded socket connections on their minor loess coefficient value. The study covered 19 connections for which the pipes insertion depth and angle was alerted. The minor pressure losses measurements were performed for water volumetric flow rate 200-1400 dm3/h (Reynolds number approx. 5300- 37000). The clear increase in values of coefficient of minor pressure losses determined for the studied fittings with different installation quality in relation to values commonly suggested to designing was observed. Additionally, it was noted that, increase in minor pressure loss is directly related to the manner of welded socket realization significantly decreasing the diameter of waterbody.
Assessment of heavy metal removal efficiency in jug filtration
Anna Marszałek, Ewa Puszczało, Gabriela Kamińska
Tap water may be subject to secondary contamination with heavy metals as a result of their washing out of the pipes transportng the water. Their presence in drinking water adversely affects human health. In domestic conditions, tap water can be easily cleaned with jug filtration. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of copper and lead removal using jug filtration with the use of eight different filter cartridges. The study used tap water doped with copper and lead. The volume of water passed through the filters was 200 L or less if breakthrough of filter was noted It can be concluded that the oblong-shaped cartridges were characterized by about twice the speed of filtration compared to the oval-shaped filters. Regardless of the type of cartridge, copper was removed to a much greater extent, i.e. from 100 to 64% than lead (i.e. from 100 to 0%), which was probably related to the lower ionic radius of copper. With an increase in the volume of filtered water, the metal removal efficiency decreased, while for lead the reduction in efficiency was much greater than for copper